Risk-oriented System for Defense in Depth of the Exposed Natural-Anthropogenic Complexes


The greatest danger is represented by the pollution of geological layers and groundwater with technogenic streams containing oil products, phenol and its derivatives. The main reasons for their formation are: emergencies and the lack of constant supervision over possible migration of pollution. The article presents the features of the formation of objects of the accumulated environmental damage and associated pollution, its migration and transformation.

The article gives an idea about one of the new options of the concept of the implementation of defense in depth system, its specific features and stages of development and implementation. The basic principles are provided concerning its formation and use at the objects of various types and under different conditions, including at the nuclear facilities where it was widespread most of all.

Use of the considered system allows to expand its scope reducing industrial and environmental risks. The options are presented related to the pollution distribution, and the development of the events when using barriers in the defense in depth system; the main types of barriers and their advantages.

Specific features of risk-oriented approach application are shown, formulas for its use and basic options for events development within the framework of the application of the described approach for the situations dangerous for environment are given. Main provisions of the development of the system of defense in depth are associated with the results obtained when implementing the risk-oriented approach, and with possible changes in the properties and the direction of technogenic streams. Its use for the development of activities on containment and elimination of emergency situations consequences also allows to consider the subsequent stages of the development and implementation of the defense in depth system as one of the methods of ensuring industrial safety within the framework of an industrial facility normal functioning.

The article considers the specific features of localization and liquidation of sources of pollution and objects of accumulated environmental damage using barriers, defense in depth system and use of the risk-oriented approach for determining the area of development and implementation of the described systems.

  1. Meshcheryakov S.V., Ostakh S.V., Ostakh O.S., Bushuev D.A., Sutormin V.V.  System Approach to Ensuring Ecological Safety at the Objects of the Last Economic Activity. Bezopasnost truda v promyshlennosti = Occupational Safety in Industry. 2017. № 2. pp. 28–32. (In Russ.)
  2. Gordon B.G. Safety of nuclear facilities. Мoscow: NIYaU MIFI, 2014. 383 p. (In Russ.).
  3. A report by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group «INSAG-5. The Safety of nuclear power». Available at: https://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/Pub910e_web.pdf (accessed: March 4, 2019).
  4. Akimov V.A., Lesnykh V.V., Radaev N.N. Fundamentals of risk analysis and management in natural and technogenic areas. Мoscow: Delovoy ekspress, 2004. 352 p. (In Russ.).
  5. A report by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group «Defense in depth in nuclear safety. INSAG-10». Available at:  https://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/Pub1013e_web.pdf (accessed: March 4, 2019).
  6. A report by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group «Basic Safety Principles for Nuclear Power Plants, 75-INSAG-3 Rev. 1». Available at:  https://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/P082_scr.pdf (accessed: March 4, 2019).
  7. Makhutov N.A., Reznikov D.O. Multilevel assessment of the survivability of complex technical systems considering the scale-structural hierarchy of processes of damage accumulation and destruction. Bezopasnost v tekhnosfere = Safety in the technosphere. 2016. Vol. 5. № 4. pp. 3–17. (In Russ.).
  8. Bilyk B.I., Ryzhkov S.S. Improving the environmental safety of unit 1 of the South-Ukrainian NPP based on the concept of defense in depth. Promyshlennaya teplotekhnika = Industrial heat engineering. 2007. Vol. 29. № 5. pp. 61–69. (In Russ.).
  9. Zhukov I.S. Safety Barriers: Notion, Classification, Concepts. Bezopasnost truda v promyshlennosti = Occupational Safety in Industry. 2017. № 5. pp. 49–56. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.24000/0409-2961-2017-5-49-56
  10. On the approval of Safety Guide «Methodological recommendations for conducting quantitative risk analysis of accidents at hazardous production facilities of oil and oil products trunk pipelines»: Rostechnadzor order № 228 of June 17, 2016. Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/456007105 (accessed: March 3, 2019). (In Russ.).
  11. GOST R 54145—2010. Risk management. Implementation guide for organizational security measures and risk assessment. General methodology. URL: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200089297. Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/456007105 (accessed: March 3, 2019). (In Russ.).
  12. Ostakh S.V., Mironova O.S. Multiscenary prediction of the consequences of deep oil pollution of the soil objects. Zashchita okruzhayushchey sredy v neftegazovom komplekse = Environmental protection in oil and gas complex. 2014. № 9. pp. 47–51. (In Russ.).
  13. Ostakh S.V., Olkhovikova N.Yu. Methods of selection of technologies for localization and elimination of oil and petrochemical pollution. Khimicheskaya tekhnika = Chemical engineering. 2018. № 5. pp. 20–24. (In Russ.).
  14. Aleksandrovskaya L.N., Aronov I.Z., Elizarov A.I. Statistical methods for analyzing safety of complex technical systems. Мoscow: Logos, 2001. 232 p. (In Russ.).
  15. Ostakh S.V., Ostakh O.S., Olkhovikova N.Yu. The Concept of Creating a Layered System for the Protection of Natural Anthropogenic Complexes. Ekologiya i promyshlennost Rossii = Ecology and Industry of Russia. 2019. № 3. pp. 54–59. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.18412/1816-0395-2019-3-54-59
  16. Coole M., Corkill J., Woodward A. Defence in Depth, Protection in Depth and Security in Depth: A Comparative Analysis Towards a Common Usage Language. Proceedings of the 5th Australian Security and Intelligence Conference. Perth, 2012. pp. 27–35.
  17. Vitázková J., Cazzoli E. The principle of Defence-in-Depth in the perspective of Probabilistic Safety Analyses in the wake of Fukushima. WIT Transactions on Information and Communication Technologies. 2014. Vol. 47. pp. 35–47. DOI: 10.2495/RISK140041
DOI: 10.24000/0409-2961-2019-6-70-77
Year: 2019
Issue num: June
Keywords : risk prediction modeling environmental damage risk analysis natural-anthropogenic complex critical factors pollution consequences environmental barrier defense in depth
  • Ostakh S.V.
    Cand. Sci. (Eng.), Associate Professor Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, Moscow, Russia
  • Ostakh O.S.
    Assistant, Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, Moscow, Russia
  • Olkhovikova N.Yu.
    Candidate, olynatas@mail.ru Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, Moscow, Russia