Scientific Problems of Concrete Studies


Making of concrete and reinforced concrete products with the required properties and the set operational reliability should be founded on the objective theoretical basis. Existing native and western theory of hardening of the Portland cement and materials based on it does not fully reflect the essence of the plastic binding mass transformation to stone, that gives the little chance to the scientific understanding of the technologies of concrete and reinforced concrete products with increased structural stability. Confirmation of the current theoretical uncertainty is a lot of still not fully studied and became habitually problematic details.  Physical nature of the induction stage, the nature of the initial discontinuity and late saw tooth pattern of the process, the morphology of the cement stone, the reason for deterioration of the quality of the contact zone and many other phenomena are not clear. The existing theories and approaches (osmotic pressure, wetted layer, formation of internal hydrate, etc.) are contradictory, they are deflated by logic, by common sense and experiments. All the above mentioned, challenges the correctness of the existing organization of making prefabricated and monolithic concrete constructions and structures.

It is possible to present with exhaustive completeness the mechanism of hydration and structure-forming transformations of the cement systems, based on the accounting the defining role of electrical surface transformations, which inevitably emerge at the contact of energetically unsaturated solid clinker phase and the highly organized polar liquid medium. Only such an approach will allow to obtain an efficient theoretical basis for making of concrete and the reinforced concrete, as well as to apply it rationally in concrete construction practice.

  1. Babkov V.V., Polak A.F., Komokhov P.G. Aspects of cement stone durability. Tsement = Cement. 1988. № 3. pp. 14–16. (In Russ.).
  2. SP 164.1325800.2014. Strengthening of reinforced concrete structures with composite materials. Design rules. Available at: (accessed: March 18, 2019). (In Russ.).
  3. Recommendations for designing reinforced concrete structures of buildings and constructions of the reconstructed enterprises. Aboveground constructions and structures. Moscow: Stroyizdat, 1992. 191 p. (In Russ.).
  4. Kind V.A. Chemical characteristics of Portland cement. Leningrad–Moscow: Gosstroyizdat, 1932. 56 p. (In Russ.).
  5. Mironov S.A., Frenkel I.M., Malinina L.A., Dmitriev A.S., Zalipaev I.B. Growth of concrete strength during steaming and subsequent hardening. Moscow: Stroyizdat, 1973. 96 p. (In Russ.).
  6. Malinina L.A. Heat and moisture treatment of heavy concrete. Moscow: Stroyizdat, 1977. 160 p. (In Russ.).
  7. Pshenichnyy G.N. Frequency of dumpings of durability of cement concrete: myth or reality. Bezopasnost truda v promyshlennosti = Occupational Safety in Industry. 2015. № 3. pp. 60–65. (In Russ.).
  8. Akhverdov I.N. Influence of shrinkage, hardening conditions and cyclic temperature effects on the adhesion of concrete with reinforcement. Beton i zhelezobeton = Concrete and Reinforced Concrete. 1968. № 12. pp. 4–7. (In Russ.).
  9. Bulatov A.I., Vidovskiy A.L. Reduction of filling aggregates with  cement stone in concrete. Beton i zhelezobeton = Concrete and Reinforced Concrete. 1985. № 3. pp. 24–26. (In Russ.).
  10. Feng P., Meng X., Chen J.-F., Ye L. Mechanical properties of structures 3D printed with cementitious powders. Construction and Building Materials. 2015. Vol. 93. pp. 486–497. DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.05.132
  11.  Roussel N. Rheological requirements for printable concretes. Cement and Concrete Research. 2018. Vol. 112. pp. 76–85. DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2018.04.005
  12. Chetverik N.P. Accidents, incidents and injuries at construction sites - accidental or a system? Tekhnologii betonov = Concrete Technologies. 2013. № 2. pp. 52–55. (In Russ.).
  13. Bazhenov Yu.M. Concrete Technology. Moscow: Izd-vo ASV, 2011. 528 p. (In Russ.).
  14. Khozin V.G., Khokhryakov O.V., Yakupov M.I. Modern method of research of cement hydration kinetics. Tekhnologii betonov = Concrete Technologies. 2011. № 5–6 (58–59). pp. 22–23. (In Russ.).
  15. De Yong Y.G.M., Steyn Kh.N., Stivels Dzh.M. Interactions of C3A and C3S during hydration (supplementary report). Fifth International Congress of Cement Chemistry. Moscow: Stroyizdat, 1973. pp. 214–217. (In Russ.).
  16. Scrivener K.L., Juilland P., Monteiro P.J.M. Advances in understanding hydration of Portland cement. Cement and Concrete Research. 2015. Vol. 78. Part A. pp. 38–56. DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2015.05.025
  17. Juilland P., Gallucci E., Flatt R., Scrivener K. Dissolution theory to the induction period in alite hydration. Cement and Concrete Research. 2010. Vol. 40. Iss. 6. pp. 831–844. DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2010.01.012
  18. Hu Q., Aboustait M., Kim T., Ley M.T., Bullard J.W., Scherer G., Hanan J.C., Rose V., Winarski R., Gelb J. Direct measurements of 3D structure, chemistry and mass density the induction period of C3S hydration. Cement and Concrete Research. 2016. Vol. 89. pp. 14–26. DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2016.07.008
  19. Assi L., Soltangharaei V., Anay R., Ziehl P., Matta F. Unsupervised and supervised pattern recognition of acoustic emission signals during early hydration of Portland cement paste. Cement and Concrete Research. 2018. Vol. 103. pp. 216–225. DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2017.10.019
  20. Klaus S.P., Neubauer J., Goetz-Neunhoeffer F. How to increase the hydration degree of CA — The influence of CA particle fineness. Cement and Concrete Research. 2015. Vol. 67. pp. 11–20. DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2014.08.001
  21. Larionova Z.M. Formation of the structure of cement stone and concrete. Moscow: Stroyizdat, 1971. 161 p. (In Russ.).
  22. Pshenichnyy G.N. Fundamentals of technology of the activated concrete: textbook. Krasnodar: Izd-vo KubGTU, 2014. 251 p. (In Russ.).
  23. Sheykin A.E. Structure, strength and crack resistance of the cement stone. Moscow: Stroyizdat, 1974. 191 p. (In Russ.).
  24. Sheykin A.E. On the charge of particles of cement in water suspensions. MIIT. Trudy: sb. nauch. tr. Vyp. 191 «Stroitelnye materialy (spetsialnye tsementy i betony)» (MIIT Proceedings: Collection of scientific papers. Iss. 191 «Construction materials (special cements and concrete»). Moscow: MIIT, 1964. pp. 152–153. (In Russ.).
  25. Plank J., Hirsch C. Impact of zeta-potential of early cement hydration phases on superplasticizer adsorption. Cement and Concrete Research. 2007. Vol. 37. Iss. 4. pp. 537–542. DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2007.01.007
  26. Vagner G.R., Alekseev O.L., Kulik L.A. Electrokinetic studies of processes of initial hydration of cement in the presence of an organoaerosil. Fiziko-khimicheskaya mekhanika dispersnykh sistem i materialov (Physico-chemical mechanics of dispersed systems and materials). Kiev, 1980. pp. 246–247. (In Russ.).
DOI: 10.24000/0409-2961-2019-4-37-42
Year: 2019
Issue num: April
Keywords : Portland cement theory of hardening induction period spasmodic nature of the process surface phenomena