The article will be useful to the scientists and specialists in the oil and gas industry involved in the construction of offshore wells and the blowout response. The article provides a brief list of the implemented oil and gas projects on the shelf of the Russian Federation. The principle of two barriers, which must be observed throughout the entire life cycle of the well, is considered. The main reasons for the transition of kick into blowout are considered, and the most well-known cases of blowout of the offshore wells in the industry are given. According to the SINTEF Offshore Blowout database, the worldwide statistics of loss of well control from 2000 to 2015 are given. The reasons for the development of offshore fields with large-diameter wells are described, and the risk of increased complexity in controlling such wells in the event of blowout is noted. The peculiarities of subsea wells blowout are described. As is known, the blowout of a gas well is associated with the creation of a gas-water plume, which makes it difficult or completely deprives vertical access to the wellhead in shallow water during emergency rescue operations. The paper shows a model of gas-water plume in shallow water conditions, and describes the processes occurring when the gas plume floats up and its impact on ships (drilling rigs, supply vessels and etc.). An example is given related to the modeling a rising gas-water plume using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) at various sea depths and flow rates of a blowing well. The methods of well source control are considered, the current schemes for installing an capping stack at the wellhead of a subsea blowing well are described. The advantages and limitations of each well source control method are presented.
2. SN NORSOK D-010:2013. Well integrity in drilling and well operations. Rev. 4, June 2013. Available at: https://www.npd.no/globalassets/1-npd/regelverk/skjema/bronnregistreing/eng/norsok-d-010-2013-well-integrity-and-well-operations-rev-4.pdf (accessed: March 30, 2023).
3. Khalifeh M., Saasen A. Introduction to Permanent Plug and Abandonment of Wells. Springer, Norway. 285 p. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-39970-2
4. Van Aggelen A. Functional Barrier Model — A Structured Approach to Barrier Analysis. SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition on Health, Safety, Security, Environment, and Responsibility. SPE, 2016. DOI: 10.2118/179214-MS
5. Shawgi A., Saeed S. Failure Mechanisms of the Wellbore Mechanical Barrier Systems: Implications for Well Integrity. Journal of Energy Resources Technology. 2021. Vol. 143. Iss. 7. DOI: 10.1115/1.4050694
6. Sorokin A.A., Solomakhin V.B., Lutfullin B.T., Zhukov R.V., Kudrya I.V. Planning and Implementation of Spouter and Gas, Oil, and Water Show Prevention During Petroleum Field Prospecting and Operation by Gazprom Group Companies on the Continental Shelf of the Russian Federation. Gazovaya promyshlennost = Gas Industry. 2022. № 8. pp. 24–26. (In Russ.).
7. Bogoyavlensky V.I. Oil and gas emissions on land and offshore areas of the Arctic and World oceans. Burenie i neft = Drilling and oil. 2015. № 6. pp. 4–10. (In Russ.).
8. Dzyublo A.D., Voronova V.V., Perekrestov V.E. Research shallow gas of Sakhalin shelf and minimize risks during offshore wells construction. Vestnik Assotsiatsii burovykh podryadchikov = Bulletin of the Association of Drilling Contractors. 2019. № 3. pp. 20–25. (In Russ.).
9. Dzyublo A.D., Alekseeva K.V., Perekrestov V.E., Syan Khua. Natural and Technogenic Phenomena during Development of Oil and Gas Fields on the Shelf of the Arctic Seas. Bezopasnost Truda v Promyshlennosti = Occupational Safety in Industry. 2020. № 4. pp. 74–81. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.24000/0409-2961-2020-4-74-81
10. Dobinson A. Safety in Offshore Drilling — The Role of Shallow Gas Surveys. Safety in Offshore Engineering: Proceedings of an international conference. Springer, 1990.
11. Loss of Well Control Occurrence and Size Estimators. ExproSoft report ES201471. Available at: https://www.bsee.gov/sites/bsee.gov/files/tap-technical-assessment-program/765aa.pdf (accessed: March 30, 2023).
12. Dzyublo A.D., Storozheva A.E. Technological possibilities and results of operation of high flow-rate offshore gas wells in Russia and abroad. Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy = Geology, Geophysics and Development of Oil and Gas Fields. 2021. № 9 (357). pp. 55–64. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.33285/2413-5011-2021-9(357)-55-64
13. Upchurch E., Oskarsen R., Chantose P., Emilsen M., Morry B. Relief Well Challenges and Solutions for Subsea Big-Bore Field Developments. SPE Drilling & Completion. 2020. Vol. 35. Iss. 4. pp. 588–597. DOI: 10.2118/199550-PA
14. Olsen J.E., Skjetne P. Summarizing a Euler-Lagrangian model for subsea gas release and comparing CO2 with CH4. Applied Mathematical Modelling. 2020. Vol. 79. pp. 672–684. DOI: 10.1016/j.apm.2019.10.057
15. Godse U., Gill A. Plume Analysis Establishes Safe Work Zone and Confirms Well-Access for Subsea Capping Equipment Installation. IADC/SPE International Drilling Conference and Exhibition. SPE, 2020.
16. Oskarsen R.T., Rygg O.B., Cargol M., Morry B. Challenging Offshore Dynamic Kill Operations Made Possible with the Relief Well Injection Spool. PE Deepwater Drilling and Completions Conference. Galveston: SPE, 2016.