Verification of the Methodology for Determining Thermal Loads during Fireballs Formation


An emergency scenario, in which a fireball is formed, is not uncommon. It happens as the result of rupture of the pressure vessel with the release of the superheated fuel. Hazard of the fireballs is significant thermal loads with a short lifetime. The existing methods of predicting the heat flow during the formation of the fireballs simplify the schematization of the process (assume the immobility of the ball), and, also, do not fully reflect the possible thermal loads. For this reason, the method for determining thermal loads was developed, considering the fireball movement.
The purpose of this study is to verify the developed methodology for determining thermal loads accompanied by the fireballs based on a comparative analysis of the calculation results with the consequences of the explosion that occurred on 10.08.2020 in Volgograd. The objectives of the study: determination of the fireball kinematic parameters; based on the kinematic parameters, the calculation of the thermal loads occurred as the result of an accident; comparative analysis of the emergency consequences with the results of the thermal loads; comparative analysis of the results of the thermal load calculations with the results of heat flow calculations according to the existing regulatory documents.
To check the operability of the fireball lifting model, the shooting frames of its formation were used. According to the shooting frames, the position of the fireball in space and its kinematic characteristics were tracked. Using kinematic parameters, the thermal loads were determined. To assess the adequacy of the thermal loads calculations, a comparative analysis of the calculation results of the developed methodology with the emergency consequence in Volgograd was used. 

1. Elizarev A.N., Akhtyamov R.G., Kiseleva M.A., Tarakanov D.A., Tarakanov Dm.A., Yakovlev D.O., Mikhaylov P.A. Development of basic procedures for evaluation of occurrence of BLEVE effect in accidents at fuel storage facilities. Izvestiya Peterburgskogo universiteta putey soobshcheniya = Proceedings of Petersburg Transport University. 2019. Vol. 16. № 1. pp. 157–167. (In Russ).
2. Sellami I., Manescau B., Chetehouna K., de Izarra C., Nait-Said R., Zidani F. BLEVE fireball modeling using Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) in an Algerian gas industry. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. 2018. Vol. 54. pp. 69–84. DOI: 10.1016/j.jlp.2018.02.010
3. Wang Y., Gu X., Xia L., Pan Y., Ni Y., Wang S., Zhou W. Hazard analysis on LPG fireball of road tanker BLEVE based on CFD simulation. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. 2020. Vol. 68. DOI: 10.1016/j.jlp.2020.104319
4. SP 12.13130.2009. Determination of categories of rooms, buildings and external installations on explosion and fire hazard. Available at: (accessed: March 10, 2022). (In Russ).
5. GOST R 12.3.047—2012. Occupational safety standards system. Fire safety of technological processes. General requirements. Methods of control. Available at: (accessed: March 10, 2022). (In Russ).
6. Shangaraev R.R. Mathematical model for determining thermal loads in accidents accompanied by fireballs. Grazhdanskaya oborona na strazhe mira i bezopasnosti: materialy VI Mezhdunar. nauch.-prakt. konf., posvyashchennoy Vsemirnomu dnyu grazhdanskoy oborony (Civil defense on guard of peace and safety: materials of the Sixth International Scientific and Practical Conference dedicated to the World Civil Defense Day). Мoscow: Akademiya GPS MChS Rossii, 2022. — С. 277–282. (In Russ).
7. Details of the powerful explosion at a gas station in the Russian city were revealed. Available at: (accessed: March 10, 2022). (In Russ).
8. Putilov K.A. Physics course. Vol. I. Mechanics, acoustics, molecular physics, thermodynamics. Мoscow: GI FML, 1963. 560 p. (In Russ).
9. Sedov L.I. Continuum mechanics. In 2 volumes. Vol. 2. Мoscow: Lan, 2004. 560 p. (In Russ).
10. Dyakonov V.P. MATLAB. Complete tutorial. Мoscow: DMK Press, 2012. 768 p. (In Russ).
11. Komarov A.A. Prediction of loads from emergency deflagration explosions and assessment of the consequences of their effect on buildings and structures: Abstract of the thesis... Doctor of Technical Sciences. Moscow: MGSU, 2001. 36 p. (In Russ.).
12. Komarov A.A. Gas-dynamic flows during accidents accompanied by the fireballs. Sovremennye problemy gidravliki i gidrotekhnicheskogo stroitelstva: sb. tez. dokl. IV Vseros. nauch.-prakt. seminara (Modern problems of the hydraulics and hydrotechnical construction: collection of abstracts of the Fourth All-Russian Scientific and Practical Seminar). Мoscow, 2021. p. 79. (In Russ).
13. Guidelines on the fire risk assessment for industrial enterprises. Мoscow: VNIIPO, 2006. 93 p. (In Russ).
14. Sechin A.I., Kyrmakova O.S. Fire and explosion protection: textbook. Tomsk: Izd-vo Tomskogo Politekhnicheskogo Universiteta, 2015. 248 p. (In Russ).
15. Martinsen W.E., Marx J.D. An improved model for the prediction of radiant heat from fireballs. Available at: (accessed: March 10, 2022).
DOI: 10.24000/0409-2961-2022-5-15-21
Year: 2022
Issue num: May
Keywords : numerical method pressure vessel superheated liquid fire ball physical explosion heat loads calculation method diffusion combustion
  • Komarov A.A.
    Dr. Sci. (Eng.), Prof., Head of the Explosion Safety Research Center NRU MGSU, Moscow, Russia
  • Shangaraev R.R.
    Student of the Post-Graduate Course, State Fire Academy of EMERCOM of Russia, Moscow, Russia
  • Begishev I.R.
    Dr. Sci. (Eng.), Prof. Academy of GPS of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia, Moscow, Russia