Assessment of the Flammability of Dispersed Components of the Mining Industry Waste


Waste dumps are the man-made wastes of the mining industry. Particles of magnesium and aluminum are part of waste dumps and emissions from their combustion.  Release of the dispersed particles of these metals leads to the spread of fire on the surface of the waste dump and beyond.  Assessment of the dispersed composition of magnesium and aluminum particles, their flammability and the induction period allow to predict the fire hazard of rock dumps and the surrounding area. This contributes to ensuring the environmental safety of mining agglomerations.

The most probable particle sizes of its oxide were established by sedimentation analysis of metallic magnesium scale. It was experimentally determined that the maximum temperature, at which magnesium particles of any fraction do not ignite, is 983 K. When the temperature reaches 1053 K, ignition of magnesium particles of all the rock dump fractions occurs, and at 1243 K, aluminum particles. The induction period for magnesium particles 1∙10–4 m in size at a temperature of 1053 K is 0,057 s. With increasing temperature, it decreases linearly.

It is established that with an increase in temperature, the particles of the fraction 4,9∙10–5 m are the first to burn. The last to flash are the smallest particles of 6∙10–6 m.

During research it was found that at the fixed particle sizes, an increase in temperature leads to a rapid reduction in the induction period. Its drop is observed at temperatures close to the flammability temperatures of the particles. An increase in the mass of magnesium particles leads to an increase in the induction period.

1. Abramowicz A., Rahmonov O., Chybiorz R. Environmental Management and Landscape Transformation on Self-Heating Coal-Waste Dumps in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Land. 2021. Vol. 10. Iss. 1. DOI: 10.3390/land10010023
2. Agboola O., Babatunde D.E., Fayomi O.S.I., Sadiku E.R., Popoola P., Moropeng L., Yahaya A., Mamudu O.A. A review on the impact of mining operation: Monitoring, assessment and management. Results in Engineering. 2020. Vol. 8. P. 100181. DOI: 10.1016/j.rineng.2020.100181
3. Górka M., Bezyk Y., Strąpoć D., Nęcki J. The origin of GHG's emission from self-heating coal waste dump: Atmogeochemical interactions and environmental implications. International Journal of Coal Geology. 2022. Vol. 250. P. 103912. DOI: 10.1016/j.coal.2021.103912
4. Vysotsky S.P., Kozyr D.A. Environmental monitoring of waste dumps of mining agglomeration. Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Inzhiniring georesursov = Bulletin of the Tomsk Polytechnic University. Geo Аssets Engineering. 2021. Vol. 332. № 11. рр. 37–46. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.18799/24131830/2021/11/2964
5. Li A., Chen C., Chen J., Lei P. Environmental investigation of pollutants in coal mine operation and waste dump area monitored in Ordos Region, China. RSC Advances. 2021. Vol. 11. pp. 10340–10352. DOI: 10.1039/D0RA10586D
6. Welch C., Barbour S.L., Hendry M.J. The geochemistry and hydrology of coal waste rock dumps: A systematic global review. Science of The Total Environment. 2021. Vol. 795. P. 148798. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148798
7. Nádudvari Á., Abramowicz A., Fabiańska M., Misz-Kennan M., Ciesielczuk J. Classification of fires in coal waste dumps based on Landsat, Aster thermal bands and thermal camera in Polish and Ukrainian mining regions. International Journal of Coal Science & Technology. 2021. Vol. 8. pp. 441–456. DOI: 10.1007/s40789-020-00375-4
8. Querol X., Zhuang X., Font O., Izquierdo M., Alastuey A., Castro I., van Drooge B.L., Moreno T., Grimalt J.O., Elvira J., Cabañas M., Bartroli R., Hower J.C., Ayora C., Plana F., López-Soler A. Influence of soil cover on reducing the environmental impact of spontaneous coal combustion in coal-waste gobs: A review and new experimental data. International Journal of Coal Geology. 2011. Vol. 85. Iss. 1. pp. 2–22. DOI: 10.1016/j.coal.2010.09.002
9. Masalehdani M.N.N., Mees F., Dubois M., Coquinot Y., Potdevin J.-L., Fialin M., Blanc-Valleron M.-M. Condensate minerals from a burning coal-waste heap in Avion, Northern France. The Canadian Mineralogist. 2009. № 47. pp. 865–884. DOI: 10.3749/canmin.47.3.573
10. Devyatova A.Yu., Bortnikova S.B. Gas-aerosol transfer of elements from waste dumps of Komsomolsk Gold Processing plant (Kemerovo Region). Interekspo Geo-Sibir = Interexpo Geo Siberia. 2016. Vol. 2. № 2. pp. 152–156. (In Russ.).
11. Kruszewski Ł. Geochemical Behavior of Trace Elements in the Upper and Lower Silesian Basin Coal-Fire Gob Piles of Poland Geochemistry of Elements Conclusions Acknowledgments References 408 Coal and Peat Fires: A Global Perspective Edited 19.1 Geochemical Behavior of Trace Elements in Silesian Coal-Fire Gob Piles. Coal and Peat Fires: A Global Perspective. 2018. Vol. 5. pp. 407–449. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-849885-9.00019-6
12. Kruszewski Ł., Cegiełka M., Kisiel M. Soil development in the coal-burning environment: the Upper Silesian waste heaps of Poland.Geological Quarterly. 2021. Vol. 65. Iss. 2. P. 24. DOI: 10.7306/gq.1592
13. Lewińska-Preis L., Szram E., Fabiańska M.J., Nádudvari Á., Misz-Kennan M., Abramowicz A., Kruszewski Ł., Kita A. Selected ions and major and trace elements as contaminants in coal-waste dump water from the Lower and Upper Silesian Coal Basins (Poland).International Journal of Coal Science & Technology. 2021. Vol. 8. pp. 790–814. DOI: 10.1007/s40789-021-00421-9
14. Nikolaev V.M., Shmelev V.M. Charges based on metal powders for a closed type thermoelectric generator. Gorenie i vzryv = Combustion and Explosion. 2020. Vol. 13. № 1. pp. 105–113. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.30826/CE20130110
15. Feng Y.-Ch., Xia Zh.-X., Huang L.-Y., Ma L.-K., Yang D.-L. Experimental Investigation on the Ignition and Combustion Characteristics of a Single Magnesium Particle in Air. Fizika goreniya i vzryva = Combustion, Explosion and Shock Waves. 2019. Vol. 55. № 2. pp. 97–107. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.15372/FGV20190210
DOI: 10.24000/0409-2961-2023-2-42-47
Year: 2023
Issue num: February
Keywords : environmental safety waste rock dump atmospheric pollution mining industry ignition magnesium particles aluminum particles induction period
  • Kozyr D.A.
    Cand. Sci. (Eng.), Assoc. Prof., Sevastopol State University, Sevastopol, Russia