Accidents occurring during the process of gas pipelines testing are characterized by the impossibility of the occurrence of thermal radiation of jet flames and fire in the pit-damaging factors dominating the operation stage of the facility. In addition, what is happening cannot be accompanied by the baric effect of chemical explosions. However, taking into account the significant increase in pressure in the gas pipeline during pneumatic tests, such damaging factors of the accident as the scattering of fragments, the pressure effect of a high-speed jet and the baric effect of the primary shock wave are amplified. The issue of ensuring the safety of personnel present near the test site becomes relevant. As a result, the need occurs to determine precisely the safe distances to the gas pipeline. Protective zones for the population are also established based on the identified safe distances.
Within the framework of the risk-oriented approach, the procedure for determining safe distances is reduced to calculating the distances at which damaging factors lose their damaging properties. When assigning protective zones, it is required to consider the possibility of changing the indicator under consideration, due to probable errors of personnel in the preparation and conduct of tests. Even non-critical miscalculations can significantly affect the determination of a safe distance.
The article presents an assessment of the relative values of safe distances, taking into account possible violations of the regulations regarding backfilling and filling with water or air, during hydraulic or pneumatic tests of gas pipelines. Relative values of safe distances are also established in terms of the scattering of fragments and the impact of an air shock wave of a physical explosion on people and building objects.
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