Determination of the Explosion Hazard of Liquefied Natural Gas


Annotation:

Excess explosion pressure is one of the main indicators characterizing the explosiveness of a gas. Precise determination of the dependence of the explosion pressure on the distance allows to ensure the safe layout of production facilities with minimal economic costs. Every year, all over the world and in Russia in particular, there is an increase in energy consumption. There is a shift in the global energy system towards the large-scale use of low-carbon energy sources, which is caused by the policy of decarbonization of the fuel and energy complex as part of the fight against global warming. The advantage of operating natural gas in a liquefied state led to the development of the liquefied natural gas market in Russia, with the development of which the risk of accidents at the facilities in this segment of the economy increases. However, the existing methods do not allow calculating the explosion pressure for a mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbons, which is liquefied natural gas. A new formula for calculating the explosion pressure is proposed considering the composition of the liquefied natural gas. The conducted studies showed the possibility of using the proposed formula to determine the parameters of the explosion of mixtures of low molecular weight hydrocarbons, in particular, liquefied natural gas. It is shown that, despite the linear dependence of the change in the maximum explosion pressure of methane on the change in the percentage of impurities of its homologues, the expected composition of the mixture components differs from that calculated according to the Le Chatelier rule, which can be taken into account in further studies. A comparative analysis of the explosion pressure according to the proposed methodology and the standard showed deviations for grades V, B, and A were 34.99; 20.45; and 2.1%, respectively, which significantly reduces the possible consequences of the explosion and creates a significant error in determining the safe distance. In order to exclude the possibility of obtaining underestimated indicators of the explosion pressure of the liquefied natural gas, it is recommended to use an adjusted methodology. 

References:
1. Fedorova V.A. Small-tonnage LNG as a factor in the transformation of global natural gas markets: new challenges and opportunities for Russia: thesis … Candidate of Economical Sciences. Мoscow, 2023. 186 с. (In Russ.).
2. Fedorova E.B. Comprehensive scientific and technological justification for the production of the liquefied natural gas: thesis … Doctor of Technical Sciences. Мoscow, 2020. 360 p. (In Russ.).
3. Marshall V. Major chemical hazards. Мoscow: Мir, 1989. 671 p. (In Russ.).
4. Planas E., Pastor E., Casal J., Bonilla J.M. Analysis of the boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE) of a liquefied natural gas road tanker: The Zarzalico accident/ // Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. 2015. Vol. 34. pp. 127–138. DOI: 10.1016/j.jlp.2015.01.026
5. Khan A., Greenberg M.I. Liquefied Natural Gas Explosion. Ciottone's Disaster Medicine. 2nd Ed. 2016. pp. 845–846. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-323-28665-7.00170-9
6. LNG Map of Russia 2023. Available at: http://www.agaz.org/ (accessed: February 22, 2023). (In Russ.).
7. Teterin I.A. Uncertainties in calculating the parameters of a gas-air cloud explosion during an emergency release of liquefied natural gas in open space. Pozhary i chrezvychaynye situatsii: predotvrashchenie, likvidatsiya = Fire and Emergencies: Prevention, Elimination. 2023. № 1. pp. 44–50. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.25257/FE.2023.1.44-50
8. GOST 34894—2022. Liquefied natural gas. Specifications. Available at: https://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200193617 (accessed: February 22, 2023). (In Russ.).
9. Troshin K.Y., Nikitin A.V., Belyaev A.A., Arutyunov A.V., Arutyunov V.S., Kiryushin A.A. Experimental determination of self-ignition delay of mixtures of methane with light alkanes. Fizika goreniya i vzryva = Physics of combustion and explosion. 2019. Vol. 55. № 5. pp. 17–24. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.15372/FGV20190502
10. On approval of the methodology for determining the calculated values of fire risk at production facilities: Order of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia dated July 10, 2009 № 404. Available at: https://mchs.gov.ru/dokumenty/667 (accessed: February 22, 2023). (In Russ.).
11. GOST 12.1.044—89. Fire and explosion hazard of substances and materials. Nomenclature of indices and methods of their determination. Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/gost-12-1-044-89 (accessed: February 22, 2023). (In Russ.).
12. Teterin I.A., Kopylov P.S., Sulimenko V.A., Kopylov S.N. Influence of combustible impurities on the flame propagation of liquefied natural gas vapors. Problemy tekhnosfernoy bezopasnosti: materialy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii molodykh uchenykh i spetsialistov = Problems of Technosphere Safety: Proceedings of the International Scientific and Practical Conference of Young Scientists and Specialists. 2023. № 12. рр. 17–21. (In Russ.).
13. Versailles P., Watson G.M.G., Lipardi A.C.A., Bergthorson J.M. Quantitative CH measurements in atmospheric-pressure, premixed flames of C1–C4 alkanes. Combustion and Flame. 2016. Vol. 165. рр. 109–124. DOI: 10.1016/j.combustflame.2015.11.001
14. Luo Z., Liang H., Wang T., Cheng F., Su B., Liu L., Liu B. Evaluating the effect of multiple flammable gases on the flammabilitylimit of CH4: Experimental study and theoretical calculation. Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 2021. Vol. 146. рр. 369–376. DOI: 10.1016/j.psep.2020.09.023 
DOI: 10.24000/0409-2961-2023-8-70-76
Year: 2023
Issue num: August
Keywords : excessive pressure methodology accident explosion liquefied natural gas explosion hazard safety enhancement
Authors:
  • Teterin I.A.
    Teterin I.A.
    Adjunct, ivan_teterin3@mail.ru, Academy of GPS of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia, Moscow, Russian Federation
  • Kopylov P.S.
    Kopylov P.S.
    Assoc. Prof., Academy of GPS of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia, Moscow, Russian Federation
  • Sulimenko V.A.
    Sulimenko V.A.
    Cand. Sci. (Eng.), Assoc. Prof., Prof. of the Department, Academy of GPS of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia, Moscow, Russian Federation
  • Kopylov S.N.
    Kopylov S.N.
    Dr. Sci. (Eng.), Chief Research Associate, FGBU VNIIPO EMERCOM of Russia, Balashikha, Russian Federation