On Flame Geometric Dimensions in Case of Fire in the Pit


In case of accidents at the underground gas pipelines, there is a high probability of fire development in the pit (at calm conditions) as a specific case of the fire in the cluttered space. Thermal radiation of fire in most cases is the dominant affecting factor of accidents, therefore it is required to estimate as accurately as possible the parameters of the thermal effect of fire in the pit, in particular, the thermal radiation intensity, and the geometric dimensions of the flame.

The article describes in detail the methodological approach to the assessment of geometric dimensions of the cylindrical fire flame in the pit in case of accidents at the gas pipelines. It is based on impurity transport model with developed gas turbulence under the influence of buoyancy forces. Presence of the developed turbulence implies that regardless of the boundary conditions the self-similar gas flow is formed with constant profiles of material flows. Thus, when the floating jet is approaching from the point source, it is possible to describe the relative change in the attached mass of air with the growth of height and the distribution of the molar concentration of the carbon impurity depending on the gas flow rate. For natural gas, the approximating dependences of the diameter and length of the flame on its flow rate were obtained. It is shown that within the framework of these dependencies, with an increase in gas consumption, the ratio of the lateral flame size to the longitudinal one decreases, and does not remain constant, as it follows from the regulatory established methods.

Therefore, the obtained dependencies can be used at the assessment of fire consequences and at prediction of emergency situations.

  1. Klovach E.V. Risk-oriented approach to industrial safety regulation. Bezopasnost obektov TEK = Safety of fuel and energy facilities. 2013. № 2. pp. 42–43. (In Russ.).
  2. Guan H.Y., Kwok K.Y. Computational Fluid Dynamics in Fire Engineering. Theory, Modelling and Practice. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2009. 544 p.
  3. Grandison A.J., Galea E.R., Patel M.K. Fire Modelling Standards. Benchmark report on SMARTFIRE Phase 2 Simulations. London: Fire Safety Engineering Group, University of Greenwich, 2001. 28 p.
  4. Chai J.C., Patankar S.V. Finite-Volume Method for Radiation Heat Transfer. Advances in Numerical Heat Transfer. London: Taylor and Francis, 2000. Vol. 2. pp. 109–138.
  5. Harper M. Modelling for calculating radiation exposure. London: DNV, 2003.
  6. Drayzdeyl D. Introduction to the dynamics of fires. Moscow: Stroyizdat, 1990. 424 p. (In Russ.).
  7. Methodology for accident risk assessment at hazardous production facilities of the main gas pipeline transport: Safety guide. Ser. 27. Iss. 42. Moscow: ZAO NTTs PB, 2019. 204 p. (In Russ.).
  8. STO Gazprom 2-2.3-351—2009. Methodical guidelines on conducting risk analysis for hazardous production facilities of OAO Gazprom gas transmission enterprises. Moscow: OOO «Gazprom ekspo», 2009. 377 p. (In Russ.).
  9. Gamera Yu.V., Petrova Yu.Yu. Engineering Methods for Calculating Propagation of Radiation at Jet Fire of Supersonic Gas Stream. Bezopasnost truda v promyshlennosti = Occupational Safety in Industry. 2017. № 4. pp. 79–86. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.24000/0409-2961-2017-4-79-86
  10. Gostintsev Yu.A., Edgorov O.O., Lazarev V.V. Turbulent jet flows in the stratified atmosphere. In 2 parts. Part II. Vertical jets with buoyancy. — Chernogolovka: Izd-vo OIKhF AN SSSR, 1990. 98 p. (In Russ.).
  11. Methodology for determining the calculated values of fire risk at the industrial objects (as amended on December 14, 2010). Available at: http://base.garant.ru/196118/ (accessed: May 16, 2019). (In Russ.).
  12. Steward F.R. Prediction of the height of turbulent diffusion buoyant flames. Combustion Science and Technology. 1970. Vol. 2. Iss. 4. pp. 203–212.
DOI: 10.24000/0409-2961-2019-7-32-37
Year: 2019
Issue num: July
Keywords : thermal radiation flame fire in the trench developed turbulence buoyancy forces accidents on gas pipelines geometric dimensions of the flame