Peculiar Issues of Evaluation of Strength, Reliability, and Accident Risk of Isothermal Tanks to Store Liquefied Gases


It is not possible to design completely reliable and flawless structures and facilities. Although precisely designed, accurately manufactured and assembled, such structures and facilities can have defects that are permissible on the condition of compliance with the established loading modes unless certain parameters are reached. The most critical issue among the threats to the safe operation of isothermal tanks to store liquefied gases is the violation of operating conditions, namely the increase in internal pressure of the gaseous phase. It is associated with the fundamental inability of a defect-free, fully serviceable thin-walled shell with a flat bottom and a conical or domed roof to withstand an emergency increase in internal gas pressure. A few accidents in isothermal tanks that occurred earlier in the world are associated with the emergency increase in internal pressure.
The hazards identified when assessing the risk of accident in an isothermal tank are listed in descending order of their importance. The excess of scheduled values by structure parameters or liquefied gas storage process is prioritized as the first criticality. These are primarily the increase in internal gas pressure, then defects of structure, random impacts, etc. The algorithm for evaluating the frequency of accidental leakage in an isothermal tank remaining in operation upon the expiration of the designed lifetime is proposed.

1. SP 495.1325800.2020. Isothermal tanks for storage of liquefied gases. Design rules. Available at: (accessed: March 20, 2024). (In Russ.).
2. Khanukhov Kh.M., Alipov A.V., Chetvertukhin N.V., Chernobrov A.R. Constructive Actions on Increase of Safety and Decrease in Risk of Operation of Isothermal Tanks for Liquid Ammonia Storage. Bezopasnost truda v promyshlennosti = Occupational Safety in Industry. 2015. № 8. pp. 74–82. (In Russ.).
3. GOST R ISO 31000—2019. Risk management. Principles and guidelines. Available at: (accessed: March 20, 2024). (In Russ.).
4. GOST 27751—2014. Reliability for constructions and foundations. General principles. Available at: (accessed: March 20, 2024). (In Russ.).
5. Safonov V.S. Security issues at liquefied natural gas facilities. In 3 parts. Moscow: OOO «Gazprom VNIIGAZ», 2019. (In Russ.).
6. Morio J., Balesdent M. Estimation of Rare Event Probabilities in Complex Aerospace and Other Systems. A Practical Approach. Waltham: Elsevier, 2016.
7. Venttsel E.S. The theory of probability: textbook for university students. Moscow: Vysshaya shkola, 2002. 575 p. (In Russ.).
8. General rules of explosion safety for explosion- and fire-hazardous chemical, petrochemical, and oil refining industries: Federal rules and regulations in the field of industrial safety. 5 izd. dop. Ser. 09. Iss. 37. Moscow: ZAO NTTs PB, 2023. 140 p. (In Russ.).
9. On approval of the Safety Guide «Methodological premises for hazard analysis and accident risk assessment at hazardous production facilities»: Order of Rostekhnadzor of March 11, 2022 № 387. Available at: (accessed: March, 20, 2024). (In Russ.).
10. On approval of the Safety Guide «Methodology to establish permissible accident risk for safety substantiation of hazardous production facilities of oil and gas industry»: Order of Rostekhnadzor of September 12, 2023 № 331. Available at: (accessed: March, 20, 2024). (In Russ.).
11. Zhukov I.S., Lisanov M.V. About the unity of acceptable risk criteria at hazardous production facilities. Vesti gazovoy nauki: nauch.-tekhn. sb. = Gas Science Bulletin: scientific and technical digest. 2022. № 2 (51). pp. 82–90. (In Russ.).
12. Kovalskiy F.S., Granovskiy E.A., Akinin N.I. Problems of Optimizing Costs to Reduce the Risk of Accidents. Bezopasnost truda v promyshlennosti = Occupational Safety in Industry. 2023. № 7. pp. 28–36. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.24000/0409-2961-2023-7-28-36
13. Grazhdankin A.I., Pecherkin A.S., Sidorov V.I. On the Possibility of Uniform and Counterproductive Identical Criteria for Assessing the Risk of an Industrial Accident. Bezopasnost truda v promyshlennosti = Occupational Safety in Industry. 2023. № 10. pp. 36–44. (In Russ.). DOI: 10/24000/0409-2961-2023-10-36-44
14. MDS 11-16.2002. Methodological Guidance on the Contents of the Section «Engineering arrangements of civil defense. Emergency prevention measures» for the construction design of enterprises, buildings, and facilities (based on the example of construction design of gas stations). Available at: (accessed: March 20, 2024). (In Russ.).
DOI: 10.24000/0409-2961-2024-4-7-13
Year: 2024
Issue num: April
Keywords : reliability life duration accident risk давление газа изотермический резервуар hazard identification storage of liquefied gases safe structures loading mode
  • Khanukhov Kh.M.
    Dr. Sci. (Eng.), Corresponding Member, Academy of Engineering Sciences named after A.M. Prokhorov, Moscow, Russian Federation; General Director, SIC Isotermik LLC, Moscow, Russian Federation
  • Alipov A.V.
    Cand. Sci. (Phys.–Math.), Chief Specialist,, SIC Isotermik LLC, Moscow, Russian Federation