Factory Inspection Supervision over Industrial Institutions of the Russian Empire in the 19th — Early 20th Centuries


The value of supervision over industrial institutions at the stage of active formation of industrial production in Russia in the 19th — early 20th centuries is shown.  The role of the factory inspectorate and other state bodies aimed at controlling the production process, as well as the spheres of interaction of the enterprises with the state is defined in the article. Based on the example of the activities of the factory inspectorate, the criteria are formed to determine the desired balance of rights and obligations in the structure of legal relations, which is required to comply with the interests of the state and business entities. Delineation of the powers of the factory inspectorate helps to identify the areas where state control is needed. At the same time, further study of the implementation of control and supervisory functions of the state in the field of industrial production is substantiated. The need to regulate this kind of relationship is indicated considering the modern realities where the merger of technological and organizational processes is objectively taking place, and the algorithms are built into the structure of legal relations. 
The issues of legal regulation of the industrial sector of the economy raised in the study indicate the unsolved fundamental problems of the theory of law, namely, the scope and significance of technical and legal regulation in the mechanism of management of the society, its scope in the structure of social regulation. The studied historical material allows to assert that the supervision in industry creates the basis for safety and real labor protection at the industrial objects.  Introduction of the institute of factory inspectors became an important factor in building the labor protection system at the factories and plants. With the help of this institute, the norms were implemented aimed at ensuring trouble-free functioning, including at explosive and fire-hazardous industries of the Russian Empire in the 19th — early 20th centuries.

1. Velbrek K.F. Theory of industrial law. Saint Petersburg: Lito-tip. V. Gratsianskogo i Ko., 1873. 157 p. (In Russ.).
2. Tal L.S. Essays of industrial labor law. Izd. 2-e, znach. dop. Moscow: Mosk. nauch. izd-vo, 1918. 225 p. (In Russ.).
3. Leshkov V.N. Russian industry according to the decrees of Peter the Great. Moscow: Universitetskaya tipografiya (Katkov) na Strastnom bulvare, 1876. 31 p. (In Russ.).
4. Reklyu E. Man and Earth. Contemporary history. Saint Petersburg: Brokgauz-Efron, 1909. Vol. 2. 362 p. (In Russ.).
5. Brokgauz F.A., Efron I.A. Encyclopedical dictionary.  Vol. XXVIIа. Saint Petersburg, 1899. P. 277. (In Russ.).
6. Collection of legislative regulations and orders of the government. June 29, 1882. Saint Petersburg, 1882. Art. 426. (In Russ.).
7. Litvinov-Falinskiy V.P. Factory legislation and factory inspection in Russia. Izd. 2-e. Saint Petersburg, 1904. 344 p. (In Russ.).
8. Collection of legislative regulations and orders of the government.  July 15, 1886. Saint Petersburg, 1886. Art. 639. (In Russ.).
9. Complete collection of the Russian Empire laws. Collection 3.  Vol. VI, 1886. Saint Petersburg, 1888. Art. 3769. (In Russ.).
10. Charter of the industry// Digest of laws of the Russian Empire. Vol. XI, Pt. II. Saint Petersburg, 1857. (In Russ.).
11. Collection of reports of the factory inspectors for the second half of 1900. Saint Petersburg, 1902. 107 p. (In Russ.).
12. Collection of reports of the factory inspectors for 1912. Saint Petersburg, 1913. 422 p. (In Russ.).
13. Kovaleva N.V. Regulatory Actions of Steam Boilers Functioning based on the Legislation of the Russian Empire of the XIX — Beginning of the XX Centuries. Bezopasnost Truda v Promyshlennosti = Occupational Safety in Industry. 2013. № 3. pp. 82–86. (In Russ.).
14. Kovaleva N.V. The taxation of steam boilers in the Russian empire from the ХIХ to the early ХХ century. Nalogi = Taxes. № 2. 2020. pp. 45–48. (In Russ.).
15. Kovaleva N.V. Technical regulation in the legislation of the Russian Empire (XIX — early XX centuries): monograph. Kostroma: Izd-vo KGTU, 2012. 367 p. (In Russ.).
16. Tomakov V.I., Tomakov M.V. The history of the formation of state supervision over industrial safety in Russia in the 18th — early 20th сenturies. Rossiyskaya nauka i obrazovanie segodnya: problemy i perspektivy = Russian science and education today: problems and prospects. 2015. № 2 (5). pp. 5–11. (In Russ.).
DOI: 10.24000/0409-2961-2021-7-92-96
Year: 2021
Issue num: July
Keywords : occupational safety supervision control regulatory and legal regulation state supervision and control industrial institution manufactory factory inspectorate the Russian Empire
  • Kovaleva N.V.
    Dr. Sci. (Legal), Assoc. Prof., Prof., doktor.kovaleva.nv@yandex.ru Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia