Investigation of the Potential Hazard of Lithium Batteries in Unpredictable Use


Lithium-based batteries are designed and manufactured in such a way as to ensure their safe operation under various conditions. If lithium batteries are misused or damaged, hazards such as fire or explosion may occur. According to the Russian regulations, the safety of lithium-based batteries is considered from two points of view. The first is intended use, i.e., according to the specifications and instructions. The second is improper use under conditions not intended by the manufacturer, but easily predictable. The article explored the third option - unpredictable use, including events from predictable misuse, but not separately, but in combination. In particular, a hazard may arise if a battery is punctured inside military or rescue communications equipment while on duty, or when charging phones after prolonged exposure to extreme temperatures.

To study a new option for using lithium-based batteries for assessing their potential hazard, a laboratory device was created and patented with the possibility of a mechanical puncture of the battery. During the research, the following potential hazards were recorded: ignition, explosion, leakage of electrolyte from the battery, pressure release and rupture of the battery hull with the release of internal components. Five experiments were set up (separately for each object under study) on discharged batteries. It was established that even discharged batteries have potential hazards of electrolyte leakage from the object and rupture of the hull with the release of internal components.

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DOI: 10.24000/0409-2961-2023-6-17-22
Year: 2023
Issue num: June
Keywords : regulatory requirements fire and explosion hazard lithium battery unpredictable use laboratory installation mechanical puncture electrolyte leak hull rupture