Experimental Studies of Hydrocarbons Uncontrolled Evaporation


The main purpose of the work is to study the liquids uncontrolled evaporation. Such evaporation is observed during accidental spills of various hydrocarbons. There are dozens of such accidents around the world every year. Many of them cause enormous economic and environmental damage. The most significant contribution to the understanding of the mechanism of evaporation processes was made by the German scientist R. Clausius and the Austrian-Slovenian physicist and mathematician J. Stefan. This understanding was used in the preparation and conduct of experiments on the volatile hydrocarbon evaporation. The results of the experiments practically confirmed the patterns of evaporation from the free surface. Some difference in the dependences obtained can be explained by the difference in the evaporation rates of the studied liquids. To obtain a very significant reduction in the rate of the volatile liquids evaporation is quite simple — it is required to limit the evaporation area to a low flanging (several centimeters high). This conclusion concerns relatively still air and small areas of evaporation. In the presence of even a relatively slow air flow (0.2–0.3 m/s), the evaporation rate increases dramatically. To counteract this increase, a grid was installed in the baking sheet, dividing the volume into small cells (2.5×2.5×3 cm). It is not clear whether the patterns of evaporation established by J. Stefan, and in fact confirmed by the experiments are preserved for the large areas. Even if we assume that these patterns are significantly leveled, they can still be restored using a grating above the liquid surface. Moreover, as experiments with baking sheets showed, the dimensions of the cells of this grating can be varied within relatively wide limits depending on the tasks being solved. In addition, such gratings can always be used for reliable fastening of the film coating, respectively, for the almost complete elimination of the evaporation of an accidently spilled liquid. It is obvious that the presence of such gratings in pits and pans for collecting emergency spilled liquids will significantly reduce the fire hazard, or the risk of poisoning in such accidents.

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DOI: 10.24000/0409-2961-2022-4-59-63
Year: 2022
Issue num: April
Keywords : hydrocarbons evaporation mass loss molecular motion saturated vapor pressure grating equilibrium state
  • Popov A.V.
    Popov A.V.
    Cand. Sci. (Eng.), Lead Researcher All-Russian Research Institute of Fire Protection of the EMERCOM of Russia, Balashikha, Russia
  • Kazakov A.V.
    Kazakov A.V.
    Cand. Sci. (Eng.), Department Head All-Russian Research Institute of Fire Protection of the EMERCOM of Russia, Balashikha, Russia
  • Bukhtoyarov D.V.
    Bukhtoyarov D.V.
    Cand. Sci. (Eng.), Deputy Head of the Department All-Russian Research Institute of Fire Protection of the EMERCOM of Russia, Balashikha, Russia
  • Bukhtoyarov D.V.
    Bukhtoyarov D.V.
    Junior Researcher FGBU VNIIPO EMERCOM of Russia, Balashikha, Russia