In recent decades, in the process of restructuring energy systems, centralized energy sources are being replaced by decentralized ones. This led to the emergence of a new concept (power generation) in power supply systems, especially in distribution systems, known as «distributed generation».
Distributed generation was introduced into the power systems, especially at the low voltage level, to make them more reliable, safer and efficient. At the same time, various problems appeared in the power supply systems that require solving issues of ensuring the selectivity and sensitivity of the protection action, maintaining the required voltage level. Since the current and future trends in the development of electric power systems are aimed at increasing the integration of distributed generation, especially through installations, made based on renewable energy sources, it is required to conduct studies on the impact of these generation technologies on the distribution networks. When using distributed generation, setting up the protection system is associated with the problems associated with changes in the magnitude and direction of emergency currents. Distributed generation installations affect the fault current in a certain way, while influencing the overcurrent protection systems in terms of their coordination. In this regard, the alternative protection systems and algorithms can be used, such as directional overcurrent relays. In addition, highly penetrating distributed generation devices such as photovoltaic installations can cause overvoltage in the distribution systems, which must be effectively prevented.
Thus, the paper considers the problems caused by the distributed generation and related to protection systems and voltage regulation in the distribution networks. Solutions for mitigating the negative impact of distributed generation on the power supply systems are proposed and considered in detail.
1. Lavrik A., Zhukovskiy Y., Tcvetkov P. Optimizing the Size of Autonomous Hybrid Microgrids with Regard to Load Shifting. Energies. 2021. Vol. 14. Iss. 16. DOI: 10.3390/en14165059
2. Pirog S., Shklyarskiy Y.E., Skamyin A.N. Non-linear Electrical Load Location Identification. Journal of Mining Institute. 2019. Vol. 237. pp. 317–321. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2019.3.317
3. Muthukumar K, Jayalalitha S. Optimal placement and sizing of distributed generators and shunt capacitors for power loss minimization in radial distribution networks using hybrid heuristic search optimization technique. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems. 2016. Vol. 78. pp. 299–319. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijepes.2015.11.019
4. Petinrin J.O., Shaaban M. Impact of renewable generation on voltage control in distribution systems. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2016. Vol. 65. Iss. C. pp. 770–783. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2016.06.073
5. Esmaili M., Firozjaee E.C., Shayanfar H.A. Optimal placement of distributed generations considering voltage stability and power losses with observing voltage-related constraints. Applied Energy. 2014. Vol. 113. Iss. C. pp. 1252–1260. DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.09.004
6. Roy N., Pota H.R. Current status and issues of concern for the integration of distributed generation into electricity networks. IEEE Systems Journal. 2014. Vol. 9. Iss. 3. pp. 933–944. DOI: 10.1109/JSYST.2014.2305282
7. Delfanti M., Falabretti D., Merlo M. Dispersed generation impact on distribution network losses. Electric Power Systems Research. 2013. Vol. 97. pp. 10–18. DOI: 10.1016/j.epsr.2012.11.018
8. Firouz Y., Farhadkhani S., Lobry J., Vallee F., Khakpour A., Durieux O. Numerical comparison of the effects of different types of distributed generation units on overcurrent protection systems in MV distribution grids. Renewable Energy. 2014. Vol. 69. pp. 271–283. DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2014.03.035
9. Xyngi I., Popov M. An intelligent algorithm for the protection of smart power systems. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid. 2013. Vol. 4. Iss. 3. pp. 1541–1548. DOI: 10.1109/TSG.2013.2244621
10. Sharma A., Rajpurohit B.S., Wang L. DG Integration with power quality improvement feature for smart grid. Proceedings of Fifth International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving. 2016. Series AISC. Vol. 437. pp. 901–913. DOI: 10.1007/978-981-10-0451-3_80
11. Javadian S.A.M., Haghifam M.-R., Firoozabad M.F., Bathaee S.M.T. Analysis of protection system's risk in distribution networks with DG. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems. 2013. Vol. 44. Iss. 1. pp. 688–695.
12. Kovalchuk M.S., Baburin S.V. Modelling and control system of multi motor conveyor. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2018. Vol. 327. Iss. 2. DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/327/2/022065
13. Shklyarskiy Y., Skamyin A., Vladimirov I., Gazizov F. Distortion Load Identification Based on the Application of Compensating Devices. Energies. 2020. Vol. 13. Iss. 6. DOI: 10.3390/en13061430
14. Ma J., Ma W., Wang X., Wang Z. A new adaptive voltage protection scheme for distribution network with distributed generations. Canadian Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering. 2013. Vol. 36. Iss. 4. pp. 142–151. DOI: 10.1109/CJECE.2014.2302858
15. Marchesan G., Muraro M.R., Cardoso G.Jr., Mariotto L., Da Silva C.D.L. Method for distributed generation anti-islanding protection based on singular value decomposition and linear discrimination analysis. Electric Power Systems Research. 2016. Vol. 130. pp. 124–131. DOI: 10.1016/j.epsr.2015.08.025
16. Javadian S., Haghifam M.-R., Bathaee S., Firoozabad M.F. Adaptive centralized protection scheme for distribution systems with DG using risk analysis for protective devices placement. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems 2013. Vol. 44. Iss. 1. pp. 337–345. DOI: 10.1016/J.IJEPES.2012.07.056
17. Sychev Yu.A., Zimin R.Yu. Improving the quality of electricity in the power supply systems of the mineral resource complex with hybrid filter-compensating devices. Zapiski Gornogo instituta = Journal of Mining Institute. 2021. № 247. pp. 132–140. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.1.14
18. Mahmud M.A., Hossain M.J., Pota H.R. Voltage variation on distribution networks with distributed generation: worst case scenario. IEEE Systems Journal. 2014. Vol. 8. Iss. 4. pp. 1096–1103. DOI: 10.1109/JSYST.2013.2265176P
19. Zahedi A. A review on feed-in tariff in Australia, what it is now and what it should be. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2010. Vol. 14. Iss. 9. pp. 3252–3255. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2010.07.033
20. Mahmud N., Zahedi A. Review of control strategies for voltage regulation of the smart distribution network with high penetration of renewable distributed generation. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2016. Vol. 64. Iss. C. pp. 582–595. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2016.06.030
21. Ruiz-Romero S., Colmenar-Santos A., Mur-Perez F., Lopez-Rey A. Integration of distributed generation in the power distribution network: the need for smart grid control systems, communication and equipment for a smart city — Use cases. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2014. Vol. 38. Iss. C. pp. 223–234. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.05.082
22. Gayatri M.T.L., Parimi A.M., Pavan Kumar A.V. A review of reactive power compensation techniques in microgrids. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2018. Vol. 81. Pt. 1. pp. 1030–1036. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2017.08.006
23. Kabiri R., Holmes D.G., McGrath B.P. The influence of 2014 PV inverter reactive power injection on grid voltage regulation. Proceedings of the 5th IEEE international symposium on power electronics for distributed generation systems (PEDG). 2014. DOI: 10.1109/PEDG.2014.6878640
24. Varma R.K., Khadkikar V., Seethapathy R. Nighttime application of PV solar farm as STATCOM to regulate grid voltage. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. 2009. Vol. 24. Iss. 4. pp. 983–985. DOI: 10.1109/TEC.2009.2031814
25. Zhukovskiy Y.L., Kovalchuk M.S., Batueva D.E., Senchilo N.D. Development of an Algorithm for Regulating the Load Schedule of Educational Institutions Based on the Forecast of Electric Consumption within the Framework of Application of the Demand Response. Sustainability. 2021. Vol. 13. Iss. 24. DOI: 10.3390/su132413801
26. Sychev Y.A., Aladin M.E., Aleksandrovich S.V. Developing a hybrid filter structure and a control algorithm for hybrid power supply. International Journal of Power Electronics and Drive Systems. 2022. Vol. 13. Iss. 3. pp. 1625–1634.
27. Skamyin A., Belsky A., Dobush V., Gurevich I. Computation of Nonlinear Load Harmonic Currents in the Presence of External Distortions. Computation. 2022. Vol. 10. Iss. 3. DOI: 10.3390/computation10030041